Monday, May 25, 2020
Sample details Pages: 8 Words: 2483 Downloads: 8 Date added: 2019/06/26 Category History Essay Level High school Tags: French Revolution Essay Did you like this example? By the late 18th century, the French presence in India was on the decline. Once the only serious challenger to British dominance on the subcontinent, by the 1780s lInde Fran?Ã §aise had been reduced to a series of demilitarized and economically neutered stations on the subcontinents east coast. Though all of these territories had experienced substantial decline since their mid-18th-century peak, none had fallen so far as Pondicherry. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "French Colonial Governance and the French Revolution in Pondicherry" essay for you Create order What had once been a thriving and cosmopolitan city had declined to a remote outpost with a fraction of its peak population. Largely to blame for this decline were the successive losses of the French during the Seven Years War and the resulting political instability in the former possessions of the French East India Company. By 1788, Pondicherry was a marginal backwater of the First French Empire, a sorry remnant of what had once been a thriving French presence in India. It is in this position that Pondicherry found itself when revolution consumed France in 1789. Already forgotten by Paris and more than two months removed from the French capital by boat, Pondicherrys French and Tamil inhabitants reacted with anxiety to the news of revolt in the metropole. To the Tamils, the Revolution raised questions as to their relationship with their colonial overlords and the true nature of their status in the French nation. To the small Franco-Indian population, the Revolution brought a chaos that threatened their precarious dominance over Pondicherrys economic and political life. To both groups, the Revolution threatened to topple what remained of the French Empire in India altogether. The stakes, in short, could not be higher. In a colony where European military and political dominance was so precarious, and where the colonial state had been substantially weakened by decades of war fatigue, one might expect the chaos of the Revolution to have induced a native uprising. Further, stronger French colonial presences in St. Domingue and elsewhere would succumb to similar power vacuums and ultimately be consumed by Revolutionary violence. But in Pondicherry, the Revolution did not produce violence. The uniqueness of La Revolution Pacifique is grounded in the stability of the political and cultural relationships built between the French and Tamil inhabitants of the territory, and the consequent goodwill that existed between the two populations when the news of revolution reached Pondicherrys shores in 1790. The Revolution swept the French Empire when Pondicherry was at its weakest, forcing the French and Tamil populations to engage with one another to preserve the territorial integrity of their city in the face of a British Raj at the zenith of its power. However, while the directness of the conversations that took place might have been novel, the interactions themselves were notrather they drew on a tradition of political and cultural engagement between the French and the Tamils that had been developing in Pondicherry since the colonys establishment in 1674. And though the British would put an end to Revolutionary activities when they occupied Pondicherry in 1793, the three-year long conversation between the Franco-Indian and Tamil populations constituted an exceptional manifestation of what had already been an exceptional relationship in 18th century colonial South Asia. Examining primary and secondary literature regarding the Revolution in Pondicherry, it is clear that the anomalous upswing in peaceful political discourse that took place was due to the stability of the rapport between the territorys European and Indian populationsa stability that was formed over centuries in the unique conditions that existed at the margin of Frances empire. The existing secondary literature on this subject is sparse. The vast majority of sources that discuss the nature of French rule in Pondicherryof which there are still exceedingly fewfocus on the tenure of colonial governor Joseph Francois Dupleix in the 1750s and 60s, a period that is widely considered the zenith of French rule in India. The number of historical analyses available declines sharply as one enters the 1780s and 90s, and thus the unique conditions created in the territory leading up to the Revolution have not been as thoroughly analyzed, particularly by English-speaking authors. This is perhaps due to the fact that the vast majority of primary literature on this subject is written by French visitors to and inhabitants of the colony. These sourcesand analyses of themhave been monopolized by a small number of French-language secondary works. The flagship example of such French scholarship is Marguerite Labernadies La Revolution Et Les etablissements Francais Dans LInde, w hich remains the only example of French or English scholarship that focuses on the revolution in French India and from which this paper will borrow heavily. However, like other French-language works, Labernadies piece does not include references to the small number of crucial Tamil sources from 1790s Pondicherry. In combining analyses of pre-Revolutionary Pondicherry from both the English and French secondary literature with a renewed look at court and personal documents from the Revolutionary period, this paper will attempt to trace the roots of the French Revolutions peaceful manifestation in Pondicherry. The Establishment of Pondicherry: La Compagnie des Indes and The Chaudrie Court The French East India Company began its relationship with Pondicherry in 1674, when the Company made the coastal town the headquarter of their operations. Prior to the arrival of the Compagnie des Indes, Pondicherry had been a minor settlement in a series of great South Asian empires and had most recently fallen under the suzerainty of the Vijayanagar Emperor and the Sultan of Bijapur. At the time of Pondicherrys establishment as a colonial outpost, the mission civilatrice that would come to dominate the French Empire in the 19th century was not yet a priority for Paris imperial projectthe French had established Pondicherry solely on strategic and economic grounds. Though its pre-colonial history and founding have not been thoroughly explored by historians, Pondicherrys position as a strategic outpost, rather than an economic colony, would prove essential to the nature of everyday life in the city. Unlike in St. Domingue or Quebec, where resource extraction in the form of sugar and f ur would predominate, Pondicherry would remain an imperial outposta waystation for the spice trade and other goods flowing out of South and Southeast Asia. Thus, as the city was merely an imperial outpost, King Louis XIV established a Sovereign Council in 1701 to preside over basic municipal governance but excluded from its purview local legal issues. Though we cannot presume to know the exact motivations behind the decision, a pattern of French colonial governance suggests that Paris so completely considered Pondicherry a strategic outpost that the citys civil administration did not warrant attention or resources. Though it came from a place of dismissiveness, this decision to procrastinate on the establishment of a local court would eventually lead to a degree of enfranchisement for native Tamils somewhat rare in 18th century imperial history. As Pondicherry began to grow and a spike in local disputes demanded the creation of a more active administration, the Sovereign Council would charter le Tribunal de la Chaudrie. The Chaudrie Court, as it is referred to in English secondary literature, would oversee cases of inheritance, marriage, property, and other disputes through indigenous legal interpretations. And as the colonial government recognized Frenchmen were not well equipped to rule on such cases, the court was made up of native Tamils. The importance of this decision can to be understated: a colonial government empowering indigenous justice is not a common sight in early 18th century global history. Though it might be nice to imagine otherwise, it is unlikely the move was informed by not ions of racial equality or civic progressivism. Rather, as the docket of Indian civil cases had already grown dauntingly large, it became clear that local justices were clearly the best equipped to handle the cases quickly and without controversy. Thus the Tamils of Pondicherry experienced decades of devolved judicial administration, interrupted only briefly by English occupations of the territory, and this responsibility likely helped establish goodwill and ease tensions between European and indigenous inhabitants of the territory. LApogee: Joseph Francois Dupleix and the Zenith of French Pondicherry Such a laissez-faire approach, though its impact on intercommunal relations would be felt for years to come, was not to last. Under the leadership of Joseph Francois Dupleix, the political component of French rule in India took on an increasingly interventionist character. Though the transition from economic to political colonialism in South Asia is often viewed as a British phenomenon, there is bountiful evidence to suggest that the British learned this lesson from the French. Just as it would in the Raj, such an adjustment in imperial priorities during the Apogee, as Dupleixs tenure is referred to by French historians, demanded increasing intervention in local customs by the colonial authorities. However, it should be stressed that Pondicherry did not figure prominently in Dupleixs plans for a future French India, as he focused his attention on other cities on the subcontinent, and therefore he did not take pains to completely overhaul the intercommunal system at play in the territ ory. Further, whatever discontent was caused by increasing French intervention into local administrative affairs was likely offset by a convergence in cultural and religious values between Europeans and South Asians in the territory over decades of exposure and intermingling. By the arrival of Dupleix in the 1730s, there had already been profound social changes under previous administrators that had altered the social life of Pondicherry in a way that was amenable to positive intercommunal relations. Primary among these alterations were the religious transformations that preceded Dupleix resulting from the influx of French missionaries, who had flooded into lInde Fran?Ã §aise in large numbers from its founding well into the 18th century. This influx notwithstanding, the French had displayed remarkable levels of religious tolerance that had helped established goodwill with the local populations over the first half of the 18th century. The relative religious tolerance combined with prolific missionary activity in the early 1700s profoundly impacted Pondicherry society, converting large segments of the lower caste population into casteless Christians, whose new religious affiliation bound them to French culture and custom. This cultural and religious transformation had reverberations in the political relationship between the native populations and their European government. With the Catholic population steadily growing, particularly among marginalized castes, the authority of the Catholic church presented large segments of disenfranchised Tamils with the opportunity to appeal to a supremeand distantauthority in cases of discrimination and segregation. In both 1745 and 1761, lower caste Christians appealed to Rome to int ervene on their behalf in caste disputes. Though the papal authorities expressed no sincere interest in pursuing a more equitable policygoing so far as to sanction discrimination in Catholic colonies in 1783the repeated instances of civil disobedience in Pondicherry were significant in the precedent they established if not in their actual effectiveness. Extensive primary source evidence regarding the motivations behind the 1745 and 1761 unrests does not exist, but one can only extrapolate from their repetitive peaceful resolution that these interactions helped establish a relationship in which civil disobedience and peaceful acceptance of the results became normalized. It was the unique conditions of French Indiawhere caste, Catholicism, and benign neglect coexistedthat enabled this relationship to form over the 18th century. The relationship between the French and South Asians was further improved by the governing philosophy of Dupleix, who allowed for Tamils of all castes, religions and creeds to serve alongside Europeans in the colonial government. On the Eve of the Revolution: British Occupation and the Collapse of the Old Order In order to illustrate the unique character of the colonial project in Pondicherry, it is important to stress that much of these colonial governance strategies existed in direct contrast with the modus o perandi of the neighboring British Raja contrast that is easily discernable due to the nature of the British occupation of Pondicherry in the 1780s. In the 1770s, the relatively liberal French colonial government had created a consultative Chamber of Indian Notablesa body that even further empowered segments of the Tamil population in Pondicherry. In 1778, when the British occupied Pondicherry during the Anglo-French war, this chamber was abolished as intercommunal relations were reconfigured along the British model. This paper by no means intends to paint a picture of French colonial governance as the pinnacle of social progressivism and political liberalism. But such actions taken by the Raj during its brief occupation of Pondicherry at the very least illustrate the relative liberalism of the citys colonial government and highlight the ways in which the conditions in the city were unique among other South Asian colonies. More than just sharpening the contrast between British and French colonial governing philosophies, the occupation of Pondicherry by the Raj had a lasting impact on life in the colony in that it undermined any sense of security that was still felt among its population. Above all of these currents running through life in Pondicherrythe uncommon cultural exchange, judicial independence of the locals, and unique interplay of faithsit would be this element of instability that would inform Pondicherrys experience during the Revolution. Beginning in the 1760s, life in the colony would be rendered almost intolerable by a series of military skirmishes with English forces that would reduce the territory to only nominal independence. In 1763, Pondicherry was reduced to ruins by British forces in a conflict that ousted Dupleix and would end the period of LApogee. Then, during the hostilities surrounding the American Revolution, the British would occupy Pondicherry for 5 years from 1778 to 1783. Though it was returned to French sovereignty after the conclusion of the war, life in the city would never be the same. While French institutions abolished under British ruleincluding the Chamber of Notableswere restored, the entire city, and the French colonial project in South Asia more generally, had been irreparably traumatized. The total population of the city declined dramatically, with the number of European inhabitants declining even more precipitously. On the eve of the Revolution, only 260 French soldiers remained in the territory. Government documents from the period show a desperate lack of resources on the part of the French military and government establishment. French primary sources from this period illustrate the dread and discontent among the Europeans who remained in the colony, with colonial administrators reflecting on their critical and unhappy position and disastrous circumstances in the aftermath of the British occupation. The secondary literature on this period draws similar conclusions from the evidence available, calling the conditions of poverty and disorganization nearly impossible to solve. It was in this environment that news of the French Revolution arrived in Pondicherry. Brought to the shores of South Asia by the French vessel La Bienvenue, news of the events in France were met with unease by the European population in particular. Complaints from the period declare that the incomplete and vague stories emanating from France had thrown the colony into the greatest worry, and the Europeans waited with great impatience for news of what sort of kingdom or state would emerge at the end of the rebellion.
Thursday, May 14, 2020
The theory of multiple intelligences was developed in 1983 by Dr. Howard Gardner, professor of education at Harvard University. Here is a discussion of the eight different intelligences Dr. Gardner proposes and their relationship to the ESL / EFL classroom. Each explanation is followed by lesson plans or exercises which can be used in class. Verbal / Linguistic Explanation and understanding through the use of words. This is the most common means of teaching. In the most traditional sense, the teacher teaches and the students learn. However, this can also be turned around and students can help each other understand concepts. While teaching to other types of intelligences is extremely important, this type of teaching focuses on using language and will continue to play the primary role in learning English. Example Lesson Plans (re)Introducing Phrasal Verbs to ESL StudentsComparative and Superlative FormsCountable and Uncountable Nouns - Noun QuantifiersReading - Using Context Visual / Spatial Explanation and comprehension through the use of pictures, graphs, maps, etc. This type of learning gives students visual clues to help them remember language. In my opinion, the use of visual, spatial and situational clues is probably the reason learning a language in an English speaking country (Canada, USA, England, etc.) is the most effective way to learn English. Example Lesson Plans Drawing in the Classroom - ExpressionsVocabulary Charts Body / Kinesthetic Ability to use the body to express ideas, accomplish tasks, create moods, etc. This type of learning combines physical actions with linguistic responses and are very helpful for tying language to actions. In other words, repeating Id like to pay by credit card. in a dialogue is much less effective than having a student act out a role-play in which he pulls out his wallet and says, Id like to pay by credit card. Example Lesson Plans Lego Building BlocksYoung Learners Games for ESL Classes - Simon SaysTelephone English Interpersonal Ability to get along with others, work with others to accomplish tasks. Group learning is based on interpersonal skills. Not only do students learn while speaking to others in an authentic setting, they develop English speaking skills while reacting to others. Obviously, not all learners have excellent interpersonal skills. For this reason, group work needs to balanced with other activities. Example Lesson Plans Conversation Lesson: Multinationals - Help or Hindrance?Creating a New SocietyGuilty - Fun Classroom Conversation GameLets Do Tourism Logical / Mathematical Use of logic and mathematical models to represent and work with ideas. Grammar analysis falls into this type of learning style. Many teachers feel that English teaching syllabi are too loaded towards grammar analysis which has little to do with communicative ability. Nonetheless, using a balanced approach, grammar analysis has its place in the classroom. Unfortunately, because of certain standardized teaching practices, this type of teaching sometimes tends to dominate the classroom. Example Lesson Plans Match-up!English Grammar ReviewDifferent Uses of LikeConditional Statements - Reviewing the First and Second Conditional Musical Ability to recognize and communicate using melody, rhythm, and harmony. This type of learning is sometimes underestimated in ESL classrooms. If you keep in mind that English is a very rhythmic language because of its tendency to accent only certain words, youll recognize that music plays a role in the classroom as well. Example Lesson Plans Grammar ChantsMusic in the ClassroomPracticing Stress and IntonationTongue Twisters Intrapersonal Learning through self-knowledge leading to understanding of motives, goals, strengths and weaknesses. This intelligence is essential for long-term English learning. Students who are aware of these types of issues will be able to deal with underlying issues that can improve or hamper English usage. Example Lesson Plans Setting ESL ObjectivesEnglish Learning Goals Quiz Environmental Ability to recognize elements of and learn from the natural world around us. Similar to visual and spatial skills, Environmental intelligence will help students master English required to interact with their environment. Example Lesson Plan Global English
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Essays on World Is Flat by Friedman Movie Review The paper "World Is Flat by Thomas Friedman" is an amazing example of a movie review on business. The video lecture by Thomas Friedman implied that the global economic playing field is being leveled/flattened and Americans are not ready (Friedman). There are some key reasons why this transformation occurred. First of all the PC allowed individuals to offer their own content in digital form. A second key reason for the leveling of the world occurred on August 9, 1995. On that date, Netscape was born. The invention of the Netscape browser gave people a tool that brought the internet to life. The Netscape IPO triggered the dot com bubble which led to over one trillion in investments in online companies. Within a five year period, there was a fiber optic explosion that accelerated the availability and speed of the internet. A third key occurrence that helps this movement was the revolution in transmission protocols. Computer software became interconnected which spur collaboration between departments in a company and it provided the ability of collaboration with people from different parts of the world. The most important economic competition going forward is between you and your imagination. Success globally will depend on how well you learn to collaborate. Americans have not been able to keep up with these changes at an adequate pace. Other countries such as Japan, India, and Singapore have done a much better job of adapting to the latest online trends.Ã Based on the finding of this video I plan to make changes to my behavior online. I am going to educate myself further on technical matters in order to become more educated on the internet and its capabilities. In the future, I might seek to start my own online business in order to take advantage of the unlimited opportunities that are available for online businesses. To make sure my site is successful I plan on taking a course in online marketing. The success of an online business is dependent on how many viewers visit your website. Higher online traffic leads to more sales.
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Discuss about theDental Assisting for National Health and Medical Research. Answer: Standard precaution and how to put it into practice Hand hygiene is one of the standard precaution and often infectious agents are often transmitted by contact. This contact could be with a patient, the environment or the health workers themselves. There are so many ways individuals are able to reduce the risks of the agents. First, the five moments of health hygiene should be followed no matter how much little time you got. Secondly, each facility has got policies on hand hygiene and every individual should be well aware of the policy and be keen to follow it. Thirdly every situation has an appropriate product that one should use according to the descriptions. Also, the policy of the facility has some stated rules about cuts, abrasions, fingernails, jewelry and nail polish which should be adhered to ("NHMRC National Health and Medical Research Council", 2018). Hand-care products often provided by an organization should be used because individuals may not be able to work together with the hand-hygiene often provided. If anyone has a reaction to hand-care and hand hygiene products respective personnel should be informed of immediate action to be taken. Contacts with patients in the surrounding should be minimized especially the physically. Every individual should also try in leading by example so that others would try to emulate. To be well updated about hand hygiene, an individual should try as much as possible to attend sessions with hand hygiene lessons. When alcohol-based products are not always available in the hand-care stations then management should be informed of provision. These are the several ways of reducing or preventing the risk ("NHMRC National Health and Medical Research Council", 2018). Contact precaution Infectious agents can either be transmitted either through direct or indirect contact. To prevent this, several contact precautions should be employed. Transmission through a direct contact is said to have occurred when the infectious agents have been transmitted from one to another without the immediate person or object being contaminated. On the other hand, indirect occurs when the immediate person or object is first infected, then to another person. to apply contact precautions one should first apply the standard precautions, for example, hand hygiene because it prevents contact transmission. The equipment in a healthcare should be properly handled for example they can be sterilized after use or thrown for the safety of the non-infected person ("NHMRC National Health and Medical Research Council", 2018). Frequent movement of patients from one place to another increases the chances of being infected too, therefore, it should be minimized. This helps in reducing contaminations from the environment. Infected areas should be properly closed. An appropriate personal protective equipment should be used depending on the occasion. Patients in a healthcare should also be properly placed to ensure effectiveness and keep them safe from the infectious agents. This may include precautions like keeping the charts of the patients outside of the room and maintaining hand hygiene before getting into the patients room ("NHMRC National Health and Medical Research Council", 2018). Risk management In this kind of a situation, the risk can be managed. In this example of a case study, many types of risks can be identified. If the health worker had used the appropriate PPE while handling the patient, then there are high chances of exposure of the infectious agents. PPE should be used to prevent the transmission of the infectious agents either through direct contact, indirect contact or through air-borne ("NHMRC National Health and Medical Research Council", 2018). Possible cause of the risks is the carelessness of the health worker while carrying the container. It should be handled with care. Infectious agents can easily be transmitted from the environment to the patient or even to the health workers themselves. The risk can be evaluated as a high risk because of the consequences it can pose to the individuals. After spills, the surfaces should be properly cleaned. Use of detergents is advisable in such a case so as to deal with the spills of blood from the bandages. Sodium hypo chlorite can be used in this case to prevent blood-borne viruses. Sharp objects should be removed using clumping objects to ensure that one is not pierced. A spill kit should be used in this kind of case ("NHMRC National Health and Medical Research Council", 2018). Risk caused by the case to other workers and how to inform others during the management The health workers, in this case, are at a high risk of being transmitted, infectious agents. Cuts from the sharp objects are also one of the possible risks in this case. This can be prevented by use of the appropriate PPE in managing the situation ("NHMRC National Health and Medical Research Council", 2018). For example, use of gloves limits the worker from being in direct contact with the contaminated surface. Posters should be placed on the noticeboard to warn the other workers and patient about the damage and to direct them in another way in. A session should be held in which cleaning skills are enhanced so as to cope up with such a case. Key points in cleaning the healthcare work environment PPE is worn when there is a high risk of contamination in a certain area. PPE is often designed for a given protected area and should not be worn outside that area. It is often worn by health workers when dealing with patients or when doing a routine cleaning in a healthcare unit. Normal detergent is often used for routine cleaning of healthcare station but when there is soiling of surfaces due to blood, body fluid contamination with dust or the presence of infectious agents then disinfectants may be used to stop blood-borne diseases and stop the transmission of the infectious agents. The surface is first cleaned with a detergent solution then followed by a disinfectant. When cleaning general surfaces, a detergent is often used. This may include surfaces like the walls and surfaces that are frequently touched ("NHMRC National Health and Medical Research Council", 2018). Sterilization Sterilization help in destroying the microorganisms that might be present on the surface of the device or an instrument. this helps in preventing the transmission of a disease associated with that device. One way of sterilization is by using steam. Another way is by using a low-temperature sterilization method. There is the reprocessing of items that are heat resistant. Reprocessing of items that are moisture sensitive and heat sensitive often require a technology with low temperatures. Dry and sterile equipment should be stored in a clean and dry environment away from sharp objects that might destroy their packaging. Equipment should also be stored according to their reprocessing ("NHMRC National Health and Medical Research Council", 2018). The use of PPE PPE is often used in a restricted environment when handling patients or when handling certain equipment to prevent the transmission of an infectious disease. PPE is a protective measure that is taken in a health care station to ensure the patients safety. Health workers always use PPE to avoid direct contact of transmission to a patient in case of a contamination ("NHMRC National Health and Medical Research Council", 2018). Staff is often provided with clothing in a high risk of contamination areas. They are therefore advised to remove it before leaving the room. In a low-risk contamination area, a cloth that is in contact with the patients should not be worn outside that area. PPE should not be worn inappropriately, for example, wearing it in a public place or rather a place outside the facility. The environment is also contaminated with infectious agents and this will put the patients at a high risk ("NHMRC National Health and Medical Research Council", 2018). Waste management Standard precautions should be followed when handling waste. This is done to prevent exposure to blood and many other body substances when handling the waste. Hands should be washed thoroughly following the required procedure. One should also choose the appropriate PPE, for example, the gloves. Color coding helps in identifying the type of waste, to place in a certain container. Waste should be put in the segregated area. This will help reduce the risks. Clinical waste should be disposed of according to health care waste management plan. Waste in a health care should be handled properly and the workers should be taught the various ways of handling waste ("NHMRC National Health and Medical Research Council", 2018). Purpose of a clean zone A clean zone is an area out of the contaminated zone where medicaments, equipment, and materials are stored. This area often consists of a patient record or charts, desk, computer area or a workstation ("audiometry - clinicinfectioncontrol", 2018). Sterilized instruments in this area should never come in contact with contaminated instruments. A clean zone always contains organisms that are new to the patient and are always dangerous to the patient if they are transmitted from the clean zone directly to the patient through the hands. This is why hand hygiene should be performed whenever staff moves between the patient and a clean zone. This is one way of ensuring that there is no transmission of an infection. Purpose of a contaminated zone A contaminated zone is an area where the items that are contaminated are used. This often consists of patients, an item that has been touched during the procedure and the area or surface receiving the contaminated items. This zone is always contaminated with either the patients blood or saliva that might have spilled during the operation ("audiometry -clinicinfectioncontrol", 2018). All the surfaces and items in this zone should be sterilized or clean after each patient to prevent transmission. All the contaminated instruments should be confined in this contaminated zone. Some of the contaminated items should be disposed of after use. References audiometry - clinicinfectioncontrol. (2018).Audiometry.sydneyinstitute.wikispaces.net. Retrieved 23 April 2018, from https://audiometry.sydneyinstitute.wikispaces.net/clinicinfectioncontrol NHMRC National Health and Medical Research Council. (2018).Healthdirect.gov.au. Retrieved 23 April 2018, from https://www.healthdirect.gov.au/partners/nhmrc-national-health-and-medical-research-council
Friday, April 10, 2020
Masters Program in Business Administration (MBA) Note :- Solve any 4 Case Study All Case Carry equal Marks. CASE I Sunder Singh QUESTIONS 1. What does the purchase of a product like Nike mean to Sunder Singh? Sunder Sing, just escaping homelessness is clearly proud that he was able to save and buy a pair of Nikes. He could undoubtedly have purchase a different brand that would have met his physical needs as well for much less money which he does not say why he bought the more expensive Nikes, a reasonable interpretation is that they serve as a visible symbol that Sunder Singh is back as a successful. Sunder Singh is not Unique among low-income consumer in wanting and buying items such as Nike shoes. As one expert says. Ã¢â¬Å"The low income consumer wants the same product and services other consumer wantÃ¢â¬ . He suggests that marketing efforts reflect those desires. Another expert state. We will write a custom essay sample on Star Airways or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page ThereÃ¢â¬â¢s this stereotype that they donÃ¢â¬â¢t have enough money for toothpaste and thatÃ¢â¬â¢s just not true. There has been some significance to them being called lower income, but they do buy things. The working poor are forced to spend a disproportionate present of theirs income on housing, utilities and medical care due to lack of insurance. They generally relay on public transportation, they spend a smaller portion of their relatively small income on meals away from home and all forms of entertainment such as admission, pets and toys; they spend very little on their own financial security. However Sunder Singh illustrated they spend the same percent of their income though a smaller amount on apparel and accessories. . What does the story say about our society and the impact of marketing on consumer behavior? Marketing is generally thought of as the process of promoting goods and services to the end user. Society is generally defined as the condition in which members of a community live together for their mutual benefit. Ã¢â¬Å"Society can exist without Marketing, but Marketing cannot exist without SocietyÃ¢â¬ Marketing is the management process of anticipating, identifying and satisfying customerÃ¢â¬â¢s requirements. The various conventional marketing tools- advertising, branding, direct marketing, sales promotion, publicity public relations. Critics acknowledge that marketing has legitimate uses in as much as it connects goods and services to consumers who desire them. However some aspects of marketing, especially promotion and advertisements are subject to criticisms. They argue that product promotion is an attempt coming from the goods and service providers to influence demand. Advertising has become such an inextricable part of our lives that one cannot really imagine life without it. Although we hardly ever notice, advertisements leave an indelible mark on our minds, especially the vulnerable groups like children and adolescents. Effect of Marketing on society, in particular on Vulnerable Groups Marketing and society, the commensuration of the two words raises a few eyebrows, as it is highly debatable. On the one hand, Society thrives on the marketing efforts of the Companies, while another school of thought argues that marketing makes the society more materialistic. Today, striking a balance between the two is the challenge faced by the Marketers. The society expects the business to be ethical and desires corporate executives, at all levels to apply ethical principles in other words, guidelines as to what is right and wrong, fair and unfair, and morally correct, when they make business decisions. Advertisers are traditionally use techniques to which children and adolescents are more susceptible, such as product placement in TV shows, tie in between movies and fast food restaurants, to mention a few. Therefore there exist many marketing evils that lure people to buy even when not required. Case III Star Airways Star Airways offered passengers air services within the country and served a territory of 18, 000 sq. miles with an expanding population of over 70 lakh of people who are potential users of the airline services. The geographic diversity and scattered business and commercial cities have led to steady increase in the number of people who use air travel. The clientele includes business people, as well as individuals on non-business trips, holidays, and leisure trips etc. As a result, the passenger traffic had been increasing steadily since the firm started operations in 1983. In the last three years, however, the growth has not been consistent with the growth pattern showed by the company in the last fifteen years as against a healthy growth of 13 per cent, the sales have marginally improved, registering a growth of 6 per cent. The companys early success was due to the pioneering concepts used by it in the airline industry, which was dominated by large private and government operators with little market orientation. The launch of the companys services coincided with a boom in the aviation sector and reduced government dominance, which opened up the skies for private operators. Besides this, the company offered a host of innovations in the customer service functions such as smaller and newer planes, convenient schedules, free gifts, comfortable seats, exclusive terminals, express baggage-check, and airport-to hotel transit for its first and business class clients. In turn the fares charged by the company were premium in the category and almost 15 per cent higher than the industry average. The company president in the following words justified this move: We are selling entirely on the basis of providing quality experience to our clients. Our services, ambience, and commitment to safety and time-bound schedule, all surpass the standards of the industry. During the first ten years of operations the company faced no direct competition. The only problems faced by the marketing staff were (a) the price, (2) the need to convince clients that air service was more efficient than other alternatives, (c) identifying the customers, and more importantly (d) developing the image of a dependable service. The consumers, who till now were forced to put up indifferent service offered by large government operators, did not offer much resistance and were agreeable to try out new company. Once customers were convinced, retaining them was very easy. Hence the company enjoyed immense loyalty from its clients with almost 40 per cent of them being regular users. Sales were handled by the sales division as well as by some independent sales representatives. In early 1990s the company faced direct competition for the first time with a new company coming up with smaller planes and all other advantages which were previously associated with Star Airways. The growing business had made the market very lucrative and hence in the next three years, four major competitors were also vying for the market share. The company slowly lost to these competitors and could manage to retain only 30 per cent of market share by the end of 1994. All the competitors were engaged in aggressive promotion and soon started a price war in order to outdo one another. For the next six months, each of them offered big discounts and gifts (such as TV / audio systems) with the return ticket on different routes. The most profitable and commercia1ly viable routes were the major targets of these price related competitions. The consumer was the ultimate beneficiary and in short time, the companies started facing losses due to this price-cutting. Star Airways had so far remained out of this Ã¢â¬Ëprice-warÃ¢â¬â¢ and lost its market share on the competitive routes very rapidly. It was able to retain the clients on other routes, which were not a part of this intense competition. Unhappy an anxious about this state of affairs, the company vice president, marketing, developed a marketing plan with several components. The initial part of the plan consisted of a market research done on a cross-section of existing clients as well as the clients of competitors and the following observations were made : * Star Airways was considered a quality-oriented company but many felt that it was getting stodgy. The satisfaction with crew and schedules had declined over the last 5 years amongst regular customers. * The clients felt that the airline was losing its edge over customer service because it was nonflexible. * The prices offered by competitors are less and they provide only a fraction of services offered by Star Airways. This was the main reason of clients switching over to competitors. As many as 70 per cent respondents considered the costs as the most important factor in deciding on the airline. * Some deciding factors and their relative importance to clients were found to be following this pattern. * Feature offered by airline |Importance of feature as the deciding |Rank of feature in decision making influence | | |factor | | |Price |67% |1 | |Ambience and food |9% |3 | |Punctuality |14% |2 | |Services convenience |7% |4 | |Free gifts etc. 3% |5 | The second phase of the plan included a massive advertising and promotion plan. The VP marketing, Anil Saxena, felt that the company needed to advertise its dedication to quality and rebuild an image of being a customer-oriented airline. He began discussions with the advertising agency to launch a campaign in the near future. After a month, the agency came out with the following recommendations: * The campaign is to be completed in four months time and the budget will be 351akh. * The company would reach 85% of target audience, once in a month by direct mail. * Four times a month a TV commercial will be aired on a business show time. The audience TRP is consistent and highest in this category of shows. * Star Airways would build the campaign theme around quality and customer service initiatives . * The direct mail letter would be sent to a database of 85,000 clients in four months. The letter will contain information on the airline and again stress on the same theme of quality and customer service. QUESTIONS 1. What is likely to be the decision process in case of choosing an airline? 2. Would this plan suggested by the vice president help in convincing the customers to use Star Airways? Give your reasons. Case IV Mouse-Rid One hot May morning, Shobha, general manager of Innotrap India Ltd. , entered her office in Delhi. She paused for a moment to contemplate the quote, which she had framed and hung on a wall facing her table. If a man can make a better mousetrap than his neighbour, the world will make a beaten path to his door. She vaguely recalled that probably it was Ralph Waldo Emerson who said this. Perhaps, she wondered, Emerson knew something that she didnt. She had the better mousetrap Mouse-Rid but the world didnt seem all that excited about it. Shobha had just returned from a Trade Fair in Kolkata. Standing in the trade show display booth for long hours and answering the same questions hundreds of times had been tiring. Yet, this show had excited her. The Trade Fair officials held a contest to select the best new product introduced at the show. Of the more than 150 new products, her mousetrap had won first place. Two womens magazines had written small articles about this innovative mousetrap, however, the expected demand for the trap had not materialised. Shobha hoped that this award might stimulate increased interest and sales. A group of investors who had obtained rights to market this innovative mousetrap in India had formed Innotrap India in January 2001. In return for marketing rights, the group agreed to pay the inventor and patent holder, a retired engineer, a royalty fee for each trap sold. The group then appointed Shobha as the general manager to develop and manage Innotrap India Ltd. The Mouse-Rid, a simple yet clever device, is manufactured by a plastics firm under contract with Innotrap India Ltd. It consists of a square, plastic tube measuring about 6 inches long and one and one-half inches- square. The tube bends in the middle at a 30-degree angle, so that when the front part of the tube rests on a flat surface, the other end is elevated. The elevated end holds a removable cap into which the user places bait (piece of bread, or some other titbit). A hinged door is attached to the front endofthe tube. When the trap is open, this door rests on two narrow stills attached to the two bottom corners of the door. The trap works with simple efficiency. A mouse, smelling the bait enters the tube through the open end. As it moves up the angled bottom toward the bait, its weight makes the elevated end of the trap drop downward. This elevates the open end, allowing the hinged door to swing closed, trapping the mouse. Small teeth on the ends of stills catch in a groove on the bottom of the trap, locking the door closed. The mouse can be disposed of live, or it can be left alone for a few hours to suffocate in the trap. Shobha felt the trap had many advantages for the consumer when compared with traditional spring-loaded traps or poisons. Consumers can use it safely and easily with no risk for catching their fingers while loading. It poses no injury or poisoning threat to children or pets. Shobhas personal and informal inquiries with acquaintances and friends suggested that women are the best target market for the Mouse-Rid. Most women stay at home and take care of household chores and their children. Thus, they want a means of dealing with the mouse problem that avoids any kind of risks. To reach this market, Shobha decided to distribute Mouse-Rid through grocery stores, and kitchenware stores. She personally contacted a supermarket and some departmental stores to persuade them to carry the product, but they refused saying that they did not sell such contraptions. She avoided any wholesalers and other middlemen. The traps were packaged in a simple cardboard, with a suggested retail price ofRs. 150 for a piece. Although this price made Mouse-Rid about five 1;0 six times more expensive than standard traps, those who bought it showed little price resistance. To promote the product, Shobha had budgeted approximately Rs. 300,000 toward advertising in different womens magazines, such as Grah Shobha, and Good Housekeeping. Shobha was the companys only salesperson, but planed to employ sales people soon. Shobha had forecasted Mouse-Rids first year sales at 2 million units. Through Aril, however, the company had sold only few thousand units. She wondered if most new products got to such slow start, or if she was doing something wrong. Shobha knew that the investor group believed that Innotrap India Ltd. ad a once-in-a lifetime chance with its innovative mousetrap. She sensed the groups impatience. To keep the investors happy, the company needed to sell enough traps to cover costs and make a profit. QUESTIONS 1. Has Shobha identified the best target market for Mouse-Rid? Why or why not? 2. Does Shob ha have enough needed data on consumer behaviour? What type of consumer research should Shobha conduct? 3. What type of advertising can influence consumers for this type of product? Case V Golden Glow Soap Anil Mahajan absent -mindedly ran his finger over the cake of soap before him. He traced the name Golden Glow embossed on the soap as he inhaled its unmistakable sesame fragrance. It was a small soap, almost like a bar of gold. There were no frills, no coloured packaging, and no fancy shape. Just a golden glow and the fragrance of sesame and Lucida font that quietly stated Golden Glow. Mahajan smiled wanly and clasped the soap in his hands, as if protecting it from an unseen predator. He was wondering with quiet concern if the 30-year-old brand would last long. Sensi India, where Mahajan was marketing manager, was taking a long, hard look at the soap, as it was proving to be a strain on resources. There were varying stories about how Golden Glow was launched. Some said the brand was a gift from the departing English parent company. Others claimed that it was created for the then chairmans British wife, as the Indian climate did not agree with her skin. They also claimed that the lady also coined the copy The honest soap that loves your skin was also coined by the lady. The line had stuck through three decades. Only the visuals had changed, with newer models replacing the older ones. Zeni was basically a speciality products company producing household hygiene, fabricare, and dental care products. Golden Glow was the only soap in its product mix, produced and marketed by Sensi. Its reliable quality and value delivery had earned it a lot of respect in the market. Golden Glow equity was such that Sensi was known as the Golden Glow Company. Indeed, the brand name Golden Glow denoted purity, reliability, and gentle skincare. In 1994, Sensi UK increased its stake in the Indian subsidiary to 51%. Within months, all of Sensis products were given a facelift, thanks to the inflow of foreign capital. New packaging, new fragrances, new formulations and more variants were introduced. Only Golden Glow was left untouched. For, although it had a growing skincare business following some strategic acquisitions in Europe in the early eighties, Sensi UK was not a soap company. The UK marketing team ran an audit of every brand and product in the companys portfolio. But when it came to Golden Glow, it faltered. We dont know this one, officials at the parent company said. We dont want this one to be touched, Mahajan had said protectively, a sentiment tliat was endorsed by the managing director, Rajan Sharma. Golden Glow is too sacred, we will leave it as it is, he said. But the UK marketing team was confounded. What was a lone soap doing in the midst of toilet cleaners and fabric protectors; they wondered, however they somehow agreed that their proposed revamp strategy would only look at up-gradation, not tinkering with what wasnt broken. Indeed, for 30 long years no one had tampered with the Golden Glow brand. And Mahajan felt there was no reason to start now. Golden Glow, in his view, was a self-sustaining brand. That was a bit of an understatement because advertising for the brand was moderate and Sensi India had never used any promotional gimmick for it. Now, after four years of nurturing the other categories, Sensi UK had decided to launch its Vio range of skincare products in India. But Golden Glows presence and profile was a major roadblock to Vios success. It will create dissonance, confuse our skincare equity and deter the articulation of Vios credo. It will stand out as a genetic flaw, argued the UK marketing head. You need to do a rethink on Golden Glow. Mahajan protested. Why? It has such a strong equity and loyal following. So much has been invested in it all these years. Why give up all that? Rajan, however, had another idea. Let us then extend the Golden Glow brand. He said It was the simplest solution. Companies were now investing heavily in creating new equities for their brands. But in Golden Glows case, Sensi was already sitting on a brand with a terrific equity. He felt that extending this equity to other categories, such as skincare products would be successful. But Golden Glow needed a new positioning before it could be extended. Till a few years ago, it had been in premium category, priced at Rs. 15. Then new brands with specific positioning and higher price tags entered the market. This created a level above Rs. 15 soaps and pushed Golden Glow down to the mid-priced range. So Golden Glows price was not commensurate with its premium position and image. Over the years, Golden Glow had become so sacred that Sensi India had been too scared to do anything to it. As a result, the soap was left with niche category of loyal users. This category neither shrank or increased, just kept getting older and older, and with it the brand also kept growing older. For example, when Mahajans wife had her first baby at 25, her mother had recommended Golden Glow for her dry skin and also for babys tender skin because it contained sesame oil. That was in 1979. Today, Mahajans daughter had turned 21 and was being wooed by Dove, Camay, even Santoor, and Lifebuoy Gold, with their aggressive advertising. Golden Glow had begun to lose its image of being contemporary as newer brands came in with newer values. Today, at 46, Mahajans wife still used Golden Glow, but when she recommended Golden Glow to her daughter, she said, But Golden Glow is a soap for mothers, for older people. That was a major problem. The Golden Glow brand had aged, and Sensi India hadnt even been aware of it. While its equity had grown with its users, its personality had aged considerably in the last 30 years. I dont think you can keep the personality young, unless you keep renewing the brand. The objective now is to widen your equity so that your image becomes young, continued Rajan. For instance, if today you were to personify a Golden Glow user now, it would be a woman of 45 years using the same brand for many years, who is aver-se to experimenting, ver y skincare conscious, very trusting, and very one-dimensional. As you can see, this is not a very competitive personality. These are the strengths of our Golden Glow, but these are also its weaknesses, he analysed. The context had changed. Today, youth demanded brands that stood for freedom and fearlessness. They demanded bold brands that dared to cure, not just p;eserve. Preservation is for old people. Those are the attributes being presented in evolved markets, said Rajan. To make Golden Glow contemporary, the attributes had to be re-framed, he felt. You cant make a young brand trusting caring, loving, without adding other attributes to it. Today, youth stands for freedom, for laughter, for frankness, for forthrightness. Thats what Close Up, Lifebuoy Gold, Vatika, and other brands propagate. So, either come clean and say it is for older skin which needs trust and kindness, or reposition the brand, said Rajan. Repositioning was also necessary to address another anomaly in Golden Gl ows image: its perceived premium. Sensi India had been unable to do anything about Golden Glow slipping into the mid-price range following the entry of more expensive brands. Now, as Rajan mulled over the brand extension plan, Mahajan felt that Golden Glows premium positioning was its core equity and that had to be maintained. If you are premium priced in the consumers mind, your extensions are automatically perceived as premium. So, if you dont present the other products as premium, the consumer will not see them as extensions of the brand, he said. For example, if you are to launch a shampoo which is priced lower than Sunsilk, but higher than Nyle and Ayur, then whatever the rationale, the consumer will not accept your product. It is not the Golden Glow I know, will be the feeling, he said. Mahajan felt that since premium positioning was one of Golden Glows equity values, it would be very difficult to convince consumers that the brand was being extended without hanging on to this particular value. Will they buy you r rationale that the very same values and equity would now be available at a low price? To be in the premium segment now, you have to price it at Rs 35 or 40, almost on a par with Dove, he said. With Dove retailing at Rs 45, Golden Glow will be perceived as a cheaper option. We cant simply raise the price, said Rajan. What are we offering for that increase? You can t add value because you dont want to tamper with the brand. The consumers will then ask, Golden Glow used to be so cheap, what has happened now? The user will forget that 15 years ago, Rsl0 was expensive, because all her comparisons would be in today s context, said Rajan. So whats the option? asked Mahajan. You dont have to be expensive to be premium, said Rajan. Golden Glow already has the image of a premium brand, thanks to its time-tested core values of purity, credibility, and reliability. What we can do is reinforce the premium through communication and positioning. In fact) we should have tinkered with Golden Glow long ago. That is what HLL did with Lux. It also launched a bridge brand, Lux International, in the premium category, said Rajan. How could we have done anything to the brand? asked Mahajan. The product had such a strong following. It stood for gold, for sesame oil, for its subtle earthy perfume. We changed the packaging periodically, but thats all we could do. Remember the time we brought out a transparent green Golden Glow with the fragrance of lime? It bombed in the market. Rajan was not in favour of the premium positioning. It appeared very short sighted to him, given the bigger plan to extend the brand. Where are the volumes in the premium segment? He asked. For some reason, every manufacturer feels that skincare can be an indulgence of only the moneyed class. As a result, there is a crowd in the premium end of the market. Do we want to be yet another player in the segment? Fifteen years ago, Golden Glow was perceived as a premium product. But today, globa1brands like Revlon, Coty, and Oriflame were delivering specific premium platforms. Golden Glow did not have a global equity. Let us revisit the brand and examine what it stood for 15 years ago and examine the relevance of those attributes in todays context, suggested Rajan. Golden Glow stood for care, consciousness, love, quality and all that. But today, are these enough to justify a premium position? he asked Mahajan. These attributes are viable in the mid-priced segment. He said. The mid-priced brand is the proverbial washer-mans dog, said Mahajan. You dont know whether you are at the bottom end of the premium range or at the top-end of the low-priced range. You end up creating an image of being on the opportunity fence. It is a mere pricing ploy, with no strategic value. QUESTIONS 1. Discuss the nature of problem(s) in this case? 2. Suggest the kind of consumer research needed? 3. How should Golden Glow be positioned/ repositioned to bring about the desired change among consumers? Give your reasons. CASE VI Impact of Retail Promotions on Consumers Shoppers Delight, a large retail store, had above-average quality and competitive prices. It advertised its retail promotions in local newspapers. Its TV advertising was mainly aimed at building store image and did not address retail promotions. The management knew it well that they had to advertise their retail promotions more, but they did not feel comfortable with the effectiveness of present efforts and wanted to better understand the impact of their present promotions. To better understand the effectiveness of present efforts, a study of advertising exposure, interpretation, and purchases was undertaken. Researchers conducted 50 in-depth interviews with customers of the stores target market to determine the appropriate product mix, price, ad copy and media for the test. In addition, the stores image and that of its two competitors were measured. Based on the research findings, different product lines that would appeal to the target customers were selected. The retail promotion was run for a full week. Full-page advertisements were released each day in the two local Hindi newspapers, and also in one English newspaper that devotes six pages to the coverage of the state. Each evening, a sample of 100 target market customers were interviewed by telephone as follows: 1. Target customers were asked if they had read the newspaper that day. This was done to determine their exposure to advertisement. 2. After a general description of the product lines, the respondents were asked to recall any related retail advertisements they had seen or read. 3, If the respondents were able to recall, they were asked to describe the ad, the promoted products, sale prices, and the name of the sponsoring store. 4. If the respondents were accurate in their ad interpretation, they were asked to express their intentions to purchase. 5. Respondents were also asked for suggestions to be incorporated in future promotions targeted at this consumer segment. Immediately after the close of promotion, 500 target market customers were surveyed to determine what percentage of the target market actually purchased the promoted products. It also determined which sources of information influenced them in their decision to purchase and the amount of their purchase. Results of the study showed that ad exposure was 75 per cent and ad awareness level was 68 per cent and was considered as high. Only 43 percent respondents exposed to and aware of the ad copy could accurately recall important details, such as the name of the store promoting the retail sale. Just 43 per cent correct interpretation was considered as low. Of those who could accurately interpret the ad copy, 32 per cent said they intended to respond by purchasing the advertisedÃ · products and 68per cent sad they had no intention to buy. This yields an overall intention to buy of 7 per cent. The largest area of lost opportunity was due to those who did not accurately interpret the ad copy. The post-promotion survey indicated that only 4. 2 per cent of the target market customers made purchases of the promoted products during the promotion period. In terms of how the buyers learned of the promotion, 46 per cent mentioned newspaper A (Hindi), 27 per cent newspaper B (Hindi), 8 per cent newspaper (English), and 15 per cent learned about sale through word-of mouth communication. The retail promotion was judged as successful in many ways, besides yielding sales worth Rs 900,000. However, management was concerned about not achieving a higher level of ad comprehension, missing a significant sales opportunity: It was believed that a better ad would have at least 75 per cent correct comprehension among those aware of the ad. This in turn would almost double sales without any additional cost. QUESTIONS 1. Why would some consumers have high-involvement levels in learning about this sales promotion? 2 Is a level of 75 per cent comprehension realistic among those who become aware of an ad? Why or why not? 3. Do you think such promotions are likely to influence the quality image of the retail store? Explain.
Monday, March 9, 2020
Implementing PING Without Using Raw Sockets Windows supports an Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) to determine whether or not a particular host is available.Ã ICMP is a network layer protocol that delivers flow control, error messages, routing, and other data between Internet hosts. ICMP is primarily used by application developers for a network ping. What Is a Ping? A ping is the process of sending an echo message to an IP address and reading the reply to verify a connection between TCP/IP hosts. If you are writing a new application, you will be better to use the Winsock 2 raw sockets support, implemented inÃ Indy, for example. Please note, however, that for Windows NT and Windows 2000 implementations, Raw Sockets are subject to security checks and are accessible only to members of the administrators group. Icmp.dll provides functionality that allows developers to write Internet ping applications on Windows systems without Winsock 2 support.Ã Note that the Winsock 1.1 WSAStartup function must be called prior to using the functions exposed by ICMP.DLL. If you do not do this, the first call to IcmpSendEcho will fail with error 10091 (WSASYSNOTREADY). Below you can find the Ping units source code. Here are two examples of usage. Example 1: Code Snippet uses Ping;...Ã¢â¬â¹const ADP_IP 188.8.131.52; (* http://delphi.about.com *)beginIf Ping.Ping(ADP_IP) then ShowMessage(About Delphi Programming reachable!);end; Example 2: Console ModeÃ Delphi Program Our next example is a console mode Delphi programÃ that uses the Ping unit:Ã . HeresÃ the Ping units source: unit Ping;Ã¢â¬â¹interfaceusesWindows, SysUtils, Classes;typeTSunB packed records_b1, s_b2, s_b3, s_b4: byte;end;TSunW packed records_w1, s_w2: word;end;PIPAddr ^TIPAddr;TIPAddr recordcase integer of0: (S_un_b: TSunB);1: (S_un_w: TSunW);2: (S_addr: longword);end;IPAddr TIPAddr;function IcmpCreateFile : THandle; stdcall; external icmp.dll;function IcmpCloseHandle (icmpHandle : THandle) : boolean;stdcall; external icmp.dllfunction IcmpSendEcho(IcmpHandle : THandle; DestinationAddress : IPAddr;RequestData : Pointer; RequestSize : Smallint;RequestOptions : pointer;ReplyBuffer : Pointer;ReplySize : DWORD;Timeout : DWORD) : DWORD; stdcall; external icmp.dll;function Ping(InetAddress : string) : boolean;implementationusesWinSock;function Fetch(var AInput: string;const ADelim: string ;const ADelete: Boolean true): string;variPos: Integer;beginif ADelim #0 then begin// AnsiPos does not work with #0iPos : Pos(ADelim, AInput);end else beginiPos : Pos(ADelim, AInput);end;if iPos 0 the n beginResult : AInput;if ADelete then beginAInput : ;end;end else beginresult : Copy(AInput, 1, iPos - 1);if ADelete then beginDelete(AInput, 1, iPos Length(ADelim) - 1);end;end;end;procedure TranslateStringToTInAddr(AIP: string; var AInAddr);varphe: PHostEnt;pac: PChar;GInitData: TWSAData;beginWSAStartup($101, GInitData);tryphe : GetHostByName(PChar(AIP));if Assigned(phe) thenbeginpac : phe^.h_addr_list^;if Assigned(pac) thenbeginwith TIPAddr(AInAddr).S_un_b do begins_b1 : Byte(pac);s_b2 : Byte(pac);s_b3 : Byte(pac);s_b4 : Byte(pac);end;endelsebeginraise Exception.Create(Error getting IP from HostName);end;endelsebeginraise Exception.Create(Error getting HostName);end;exceptFillChar(AInAddr, SizeOf(AInAddr), #0);end;WSACleanup;end;function Ping(InetAddress : string) : boolean;varHandle : THandle;InAddr : IPAddr;DW : DWORD;rep : array[1..128] of byte;beginresult : false;Handle : IcmpCreateFile;if Handle INVALID_HANDLE_VALUE thenExit;TranslateStringToTInAddr(InetAddres s, InAddr);DW : IcmpSendEcho(Handle, InAddr, nil, 0, nil, rep, 128, 0);Result : (DW 0);IcmpCloseHandle(Handle);end;Ã¢â¬â¹end.
Saturday, February 22, 2020
Facility Survey Report - Assignment Example Through the survey, the foundation will also get baseline data, which will help with the audit of the sports and recreational facilities in the area (El Pomar 1). The aims of the audit include improving the capacity of the foundation in providing access to recreation/sports information. The most important information to be collected and communicated to the users of the facilities includes contact information and the condition of the facilities. The other information to be provided, following the information collected, will include the location of the centers, the current and the future usage of the facilities and levels of access Ã¢â¬â to residents and the visitors of the area. Through the survey, the foundation will identify areas that require development and that will help in the channeling of facility improvement in the future. The survey tour will cover two El Pomar facilities at the Colorado area, namely, the El Pomar youth sports park and the E.A.TuttClub (BGCPPR 1). Followi ng the review of the two facilities, this paper will present a summary of the tour of the centers and discuss the good design. It will also expose poor design features, discuss main lessons learnt through the tour, and note the areas to be changed immediately (El Pomar 1). Summary of the tour El Pomar youth sports park The first facility covered by the survey tour was the El Pomar sports center, which has been in operation for about 13 years. The facility provides mind and body recreational services to the members of the colleges in the area, athletes, and members of the community. The facility is located at 2212 Executive circle, Colorado Springs (El Pomar 1). The website of the El Pomar youth Sports Park is given below: http://www.csyouthsports.org/ The website of the facility offers information on the people working at the facility, the facilities available at the center, the policies and the scheduling of the facility, the facilityÃ¢â¬â¢s outreach as well as the news and the e vents of the facility. The website also offers information on the sponsors and the partners of the facility, as well as directions to visitors and contact information Ã¢â¬â for visitors and those making inquiries over the Internet (El Pomar 1). The manager (operations director) in charge of the facility is Vicki Martin. The operations director has served at the office since 2002, working as the contact person Ã¢â¬â responsible for games, tournaments, practice scheduling and scrimmage. She works directly with leagues, clubs, parents, coaches and the youths that use the park. She is also responsible for the handling of invoices, accounts receivables, and book keeping (El Pomar 1). The executive manager of the facility is Eric Parthen, who took office in July 2013. Mr. Parthen is a well-established leader and officer, holding more than 17 years of leadership at similar or higher executive posts (El Pomar 1). The E.A.TuttClub is a facility that offers recreation and learning facil ities. The facility offers both boys and girls, a fun and relaxing environment for learning, at the huge library, where members can learn all that they want. At the recreation room, the facility offers fooseball, house pool, poly pong tables, carpet ball and air hockey facilities. Other facilities at the center include a computer lab, an art room, a gymnasium and an open play ground with baseball and basketball fields, among other recreational grounds (BGCPPR 1). The facility is